Yes, I'm with Bob -- READ THE LABEL. Some are ONLY for clearcoated wheels. They contain a caustic that's great for cleaning plastic, but actually corrodes aluminum. That's what it sounds like happened to yours.
You didn't use a scotchbrite pad did you? That'll scratch the heck out of them. I use a fine one to give my wheels a "brushed" look because I'm too lazy to keep them shiny...